北方主要河流水沙变异及其成因
Study on the variations and causes of runoff and sediment in the major rivers in North China.
投稿时间:2023-08-26  修订日期:2023-11-23
DOI:
中文关键词:  北方河流  水沙变化  趋势分析  主要影响因素  人类活动
英文关键词:Northern rivers  runoff and sediment load variations  trend analysis  main influencing factors  human activities
基金项目:
作者单位邮编
王延贵* 中国水利水电科学研究院 100048
刘焕永 中国水利水电科学研究院 
陈吟 中国水利水电科学研究院 
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中文摘要:
      为了解我国北方河流的水沙变异及主要成因,本文利用M-K检验法和水文量累积曲线法,分析了我国北方河流代表站径流量和输沙量的变化特征,探讨了影响北方河流水沙变化的主要因素。结果表明,淮河代表站年径流量没有明显的变化趋势,其他北方河流的年径流量具有减小或显著减小趋势;松花江代表站年输沙量无趋势变化,其他北方河流代表站年输沙量都有显著减少趋势;影响北方河流水沙变化的主要因素包括水土保持措施、水库工程、流域降水变化、引水引沙与泥沙综合利用、过度建设等,其中水土保持是北方河流流域保水减沙的主要措施,水库调蓄拦沙在江河水沙态势变异发挥重要作用,流域降水变化也是北方河流水沙变异的影响因素,引水引沙与泥沙综合利用也对北方平原河流水沙变化发挥一定的作用。
英文摘要:
      In order to understand the variation and causes of runoff and sediment in the major rivers in North China, the variation characteristics of runoff and sediment load at representative stations are analyzed using the M-K test method and the hydrological accumulation curve method, and its main influence factors are discussed in this article. The results indicate that there is a decrease or a significant decrease trend in the annual runoff of the other northern rivers except for the Huai River without significant variation. And the annual sediment load at representative stations in other northern rivers has a significant decreasing trend except for the Songhua River without significant variation. The main factors affecting runoff and sediment load include water and soil conservation, reservoir construction, precipitation changes, diversion of water and sediment, comprehensive utilization of sediment, and excessive construction. Among them, water and soil conservation is the main measure for water conservation and sediment reduction in the northern rivers. The regulation and sediment retention of reservoirs play an important role in the water and sediment variation of the river. In addition, the variation of precipitation is also a factor affecting the variation of water and sediment in the northern rivers. Besides, water and sediment diversion as well as comprehensive sediment utilization also play a certain role in runoff and sediment changes of the northern plain rivers.
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