中华水塔面临的挑战与应对战略
Challenges and coping strategies of China Water Tower
投稿时间:2022-04-06  修订日期:2022-06-17
DOI:
中文关键词:  中华水塔  水资源  气候变化  青藏高原  生态退化
英文关键词:China Water Tower  Water resources  Climate change  The Tibetan Plateau  Ecological degradation
基金项目:
作者单位邮编
王浩 中国水利水电科学研究院水资源研究所 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室 100089
王芳 中国水利水电科学研究院水资源研究所 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室 
严登华 中国水利水电科学研究院水资源研究所 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室 
赵勇 中国水利水电科学研究院水资源研究所 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室 
蒋云钟 中国水利水电科学研究院 
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中文摘要:
      水是生命之源、生产之要、生态之基。“中华水塔”是具备为全国水资源周济调配创造先决条件的水源,是缔造中华民族的生命之水、生产之水、生态之水乃至文明之水。三江源499亿m3的水资源,是流域辖区范围内15个省级行政区国民经济发展的重要水源,号称“中华水塔”名副其实。但是,在全球气候变化带来水资源问题凸显的今天,需要立足整个青藏高原,面向全国缺水地区,应对气候变化加剧的水资源短缺以及由此带来的社会经济和生态问题。用更大的视角重新定位“中华水塔”,以期推进生态保护的关键工程建设,遏制加速退化的水源涵养功能;构建包括国际河流的国家水网,应对中低海拔冰川消融和冻土释水红利消失后整个北方的缺水危机;加强高原藏区饮用水安全保障,应对生源要素改变与病原微生物进入水体带来的水环境风险。
英文摘要:
      Datonghe basin is located in Qilian mountain area, the northeast edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Datong river has a low degree of development and utilization. The measured runoff is basically natural runoff, with an annual average runoff of 2.895 billion m3. With the global climate change, the rainfall-runoff relationship has changed significantly. The evolution of hydrological elements took 1997 as an obvious dividing point. The analysis of the rainfall-runoff relationship showed that the pre-flood runoff at the three stations of Ga Ride, Ga Datan and Tian Tangsi decreased significantly. After the flood season, the upstream runoff increased significantly, and the annual total water resources decreased by 97 million m3. Based on the comparison of the inflow water between the Ga Dadan and Tian Tangsi sections in the middle and lower reaches, the runoff decrease dominated by evaporation was 23,870 m3 /km2. Based on the comparison of runoff at different periods between Ga Ride and Ga Datan in the upper and middle reaches, the increase of runoff in the dry season comes from the steady release of water from the frozen soil, and the annual release is estimated at 41 million m3 preliminarily. The decrease of spring runoff is caused by the release of water from the seasonal frozen soil and the increase of land surface evaporation. The annual average water shortage of the seasonal frozen soil is 40 million m3. The increase of runoff in summer and autumn is mainly caused by glacial melt water and release of frozen soil water. Taking the sensonal deficit as the final release water, we concluded that the increase of glacial melt water is 348 million m3 preliminarily. We estimate that the basin's water deficit will reach 445 million m3 based on future glacier melting and reserve reduction further.
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