孙双科,张国强.环境友好的近自然型鱼道[J].中国水利水电科学研究院学报,2012,(1):
环境友好的近自然型鱼道
Environment-friendly fishway in close-to-nature types
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  近自然型鱼道  漂石  加糙坡道  旁通过鱼水道  过鱼副坝
英文关键词:close-to-nature type of fish passes  individual boulder  bottom ramp and slope  bypass channel  fish ramp
基金项目:
作者单位
孙双科 中国水利水电科学研究院流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室北京100038 
张国强 中国水利水电科学研究院流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室北京100038 
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中文摘要:
      鱼道是帮助鱼类顺利通过闸坝等障碍物的专用设施,在维系河流连续性与生物种群交流方面具有不可替代的作用。近自然型鱼道是目前国际上十分流行的鱼道布置形式,其典型特点是利用漂石与天然河道床沙质构建尽可能接近于天然河流的水流流态。与传统的工程鱼道相比,近自然型鱼道由于构建了鱼类熟悉的水流流态,因而往往具有更高的过鱼效率。本文全面介绍了近自然型鱼道的设计理念、类型、构造布置特点、设计原则、以及水力计算方法,并对我国鱼道技术的进一步发展提出了若干建议。
英文摘要:
      As a special releasing structure, fishway can help the fish species migrate through the dam & gate successfully. It is essential to maintain the river continuum and intercommunion between different fish species. Close-to-nature type of fish passes is one of the most popular layout of fishways in the world,its marked characteristics are that individual boulders and locally substrates are adopted for the fishway construction in order to imitate as closely as possible the flow pattern of natural river, and therefore it has higher running efficiency for fish migration than traditional technical fishways. This paper introduces the close-to-nature type of fish passes in detail including its principle, constructions styles, method of design,and hydraulic calculations etc., and proposes some advice for the improvement of our country’s fishway technology in the future.
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