何耘,林林,王学凤.北京地区主要河流水沙量变化分析[J].中国水利水电科学研究院学报,2023,21(6):526-536,585
北京地区主要河流水沙量变化分析
Changes in runoff and sediment loads of main rivers in Beijing
投稿时间:2023-09-13  
DOI:10.13244/j.cnki.jiwhr.20230172
中文关键词:  径流量  输沙量  人类活动  水土保持  气候变化
英文关键词:runoff  sediment load  human activities  soil and water conservation  climate change
基金项目:
作者单位
何耘 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
林林 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
王学凤 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
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中文摘要:
      河流水沙量是水利工程和各类涉水基础设施建设中需要考虑的重要要素,其大小和变化对于水资源开发利用及河道治理等意义重大。通过收集北京地区主要河流13个水文站自开展水沙实测(或1950年)至2022年的年径流量和年输沙量数据,系统分析各站的水沙变化过程及趋势,研究表明,北京地区主要河流的水沙量年内分布不均,年际变幅大,水沙变化基本同步。几乎所有河流的年径流量和年输沙量均呈下降趋势且2000年后水沙量锐减。潮白河水系干支流的下堡站、张家坟站、下会站、前辛庄站和口头站2001—2022年的年径流量均值约为多年均值的1/2,2001—2022年的年输沙量均值为多年均值的2%~19%,苏庄站2000年之后大多数年份河干断流;永定河水系雁翅站2001—2022年的年径流量均值为多年均值的30%,2001—2022年的年输沙量均值接近0;三家店站和卢沟桥站2000年后大多数年份的年径流量和年输沙量为0。大清河水系漫水河站和张坊站2001—2022年的年径流量均值约为多年均值的20%,2000年后漫水河站大多数年份年输沙量为0,张坊站2001—2022年的年输沙量均值为多年均值的17%。河流水沙量大幅降低的主要驱动因素是受人类活动的影响,主要包括上游库坝拦截、塘坝和灌区增加、小流域治理和水土保持工作的成效等。气候变化引起年降水量(特别是汛期降水量)的减少对河流水沙量有一定的影响。
英文摘要:
      The magnitude and change of runoff and sediment loads in rivers are important for water resource development and utilization as well as river management,and are basic data for the construction of water projects and other water-related infrastructure.Data of annual runoff and sediment loads of 13 gauging stations in the major rivers in Beijing from the time when the flow and sediment concentration of rivers were measured[DK](or from 1950[DK])to 2022 are collected,and changes in runoff and sediment loads of these stations are analyzed.It is found that the interannual variations in runoff and sediment loads of rivers in the Beijing region are large,and the changes in runoff and sediment loads are basically synchronous.Nearly all rivers present significant decline trends in runoff and sediment loads,with a sharp decline after 2000.The mean annual runoffs of the Xiabao,Zhangjiafen,Xiahui,Qianxinzhuang and Koutou Stations in the main stem and its tributaries of the Chaobai River system during 2001—2022 are approximately 1/2 of the long term mean values,and the mean annual sediment loads during 2001—2022 are 2% to 19% of the long term mean values,and the river where Suzhuang Station is located at has been dry for most of the years since 2000.The mean annual runoff of the Yanchi Station in the Yongding River during 2001—2022 is 30 % of the long term mean value,and the mean annual sediment loads during 2001—2022 is close to 0.The mean annual runoff and sediment loads of Sanjiadian and Lugouqiao Stations in the Yongding River are 0 for most of years during 2001—2022.The mean annual runoffs of the 2 stations in the Daqing River system during 2001—2022 are approximately 20 % of the long term mean values,and the annual sediment loads of the Manshuihe Station are 0 for most of years during 2001—2022,while the mean annual sediment load of the Zhangfang Station during 2001—2022 is 17 % of the long term mean value.The main driving factor for the significant decrease in runoff and sediment loads in the rivers is the impact of human activities,including the flow and sediment interception by upstream reservoirs and dams,the increase in ponds and irrigation areas,the effectiveness of small watershed management and soil and water conservation practices,etc.The decrease in precipitation,especially flood season rainfall,caused by climate change has a certain impact on the reduction of river runoff and sediment loads of the rivers.
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