潘佳佳,郭新蕾,王涛,付辉,郭永鑫,李甲振.长江源区年际冰水情变化及其影响因子分析[J].中国水利水电科学研究院学报,2023,21(1):64-73
长江源区年际冰水情变化及其影响因子分析
River ice-flow situations and interannual variations in the source region of the Yangtze River on the Tibetan Plateau
投稿时间:2022-04-01  
DOI:10.13244/j.cnki.jiwhr.20220060
中文关键词:  长江源  冰水情  青藏高原  径流量  冰期变化
英文关键词:source region of Yangtze River  river ice-flow situations  Tibetan Plateau  flow discharge  variations of ice periods
基金项目:国家自然基金项目(51979291,52009144,U2243221);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究任务(2019QZKK020706);中国水科院科研专项(HY0145B032021,HY110145B0012021)
作者单位
潘佳佳 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
郭新蕾 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
王涛 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
付辉 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
郭永鑫 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
李甲振 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
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中文摘要:
      受限于高寒山区地形、气候和环境条件,目前关于长江源区河流的冰水情研究较少,源区降雨径流年际变化和冰盖分布等规律不明确。为了明晰长江源区水文与水资源现状和冰水情本底,本文收集整理了2006—2018年沱沱河和直门达水文站近十年的降雨、蒸发、径流、水温、气温和冰厚资料,采用统计分析、线性回归、单一因子分析和相关性分析等结合的研究方法,重点揭示了源区河流流量、冰期和冰厚现状、其年际变化特征和主要影响因子。研究表明,源区河流洪峰年际波动范围超50%,洪峰集中在7—9月,非汛期流量仅为汛期流量的1/7,非汛期流量年际波动小于汛期,且直门达站水位流量年际变化幅度小于上游沱沱河站;沱沱河站冰期持续时间7个月,而下游直门达站冰期为5个月,多年平均冰盖厚为0.15 m,造成两站冰情差异的主要原因是源区垂直地形急变引起的高程差;源区降雨量年际波动与年际径流波动一致,蒸发量年际波动仅为降雨量的一半,因此两站流量的年际波动受降雨影响较大。长江源区降雨和气温变化是冰水情变化的主要驱动因子,与源区河流的地形高程密切相关,亟需系统的科考进一步明晰长江源冰水情时空变化规律。
英文摘要:
      There is little research focusing on the river ice-flow situations in the source region of the Yangtze River,due to the difficult accessibility,cold weather and special environment on the Tibetan Plateau.To get a better understanding of hydraulics in the source region of the Yangtze River,this study compiles river ice and flow data at two hydrological stations of Tuotuohe and Zhimenda from 2006 to 2018.The main purpose is to understand characteristics of flow discharge,ice periods,river ice thickness,their interannual variations during the latest decade and the main influence factors.Collected data shows that the range of interannual variations in peak discharges exceeds 50% in the source region of the Yangtze River,and the peak discharges mainly occur over the period from July to September.The discharge in dry periods is only 1/7 of that inflood periods,and the former interannual variation is smaller than the latter.The ice period at the Tuotuohe station lasts 7 months,while it lasts only 5 months at the Zhimenda station.The average river ice thickness is 0.15 m in the source region of the Yangtze River for the latest decade.The interannual variation of precipitations is more than 50%,and it is half of that for the evaporation in the source region rivers.Precipitation and air temperature are the main driving factors for interannual variations of flow and river ice,and they are both related to the topography of source region rivers.
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