徐俊杰,杨志勇,高希超,高凯.长江流域典型城市暴雨雨型特征分析[J].中国水利水电科学研究院学报,2023,21(1):1-9,22
长江流域典型城市暴雨雨型特征分析
Analysis of rainstorm pattern characteristics in typical cities in the Yangtze River Basin
投稿时间:2022-07-05  
DOI:10.13244/j.cnki.jiwhr.20220293
中文关键词:  长江流域  暴雨  雨型  雨峰占比  雨峰系数
英文关键词:Yangtze River Basin  rainstorm  rain pattern  proportion of rain peak  rain peak coefficient
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2022YFC3002702);国家自然科学基金面上项目(51879274);流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室团队项目(SKL2022TS11)
作者单位E-mail
徐俊杰 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038  
杨志勇 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 yangzy@iwhr.com 
高希超 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038  
高凯 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038  
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中文摘要:
      长江流域是我国洪涝灾害频繁出现的地区之一,对长江流域暴雨雨型特征演变的研究,可以为流域内城市防洪排涝提供科学依据。利用1970—2020年间长江流域11个典型城市站点的逐小时降雨观测资料,筛选场次暴雨后利用累计雨量历时曲线和模糊识别法识别暴雨雨型,采用Mann-Kendall方法对单峰型暴雨雨峰系数和占比进行趋势检测,并对不同历时暴雨分组后进行雨峰特征分析。结果表明:①长江流域典型城市中的单峰型暴雨出现频次占85%,平均型和双峰型出现较少;单峰型暴雨的前期集中型最多,占50%,中期集中型和后期集中型次之。②短历时(1~6 h)暴雨的雨峰占比达到70%,长历时(13~24 h)和超长历时(24 h以上)的雨峰占比分别只有28%和17%。最大小时雨强主导了短历时暴雨的特征,对长历时暴雨来说,降雨的持续性是总雨量变化的主要因素。③从上游到下游,暴雨的雨峰系数逐渐增大,峰现时间逐渐向后推移,长历时和超长历时暴雨尤为显著。
英文摘要:
      The Yangtze River basin is one of the regions with frequent floods in China.The study of rainstorm pattern characteristics in the Yangtze River basin can provide a scientific basis for urban flood control and drainage in the basin.Based on hourly precipitation dataset from 11 urban stations covering the period of 1970—2020 cross the Yangtze River basin,we screened the rainstorm and identified the rainstorm pattern with the cumulative rainfall ephemeral curve and the fuzzy identification method.The rainstorm characteristics were analyzed by Mann-Kendall method and other methods after grouping different duration rainstorms.The results show that:(1) The frequency of single-peaked rainstorm accounts for 85%,while the average pattern and double-peaked pattern appear less frequently.The pre-concentration pattern occurred most frequently (50%),followed by the mid-concentration pattern and the late concentration pattern.(2) The rain peaks of short-duration (1-6 hours) rainstorm account for 70% of the total rainfall,while the rain peaks of long-duration (13-24 hours) and very long-duration (more than 24 hours) account for only 28% and 17%,respectively.The maximum hourly rain intensity dominates the characteristics of short-duration rainstorm,and for long-duration rainstorm,the persistence of rainfall is the main factor of the total rainfall.(3) From the upper basin to lower basin,the rainfall peak coefficient of the rainstorm gradually increases,and the rainfall peak appears later and later,which is especially significant for long-duration rainstorm and very long-duration storms.
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