马巍,苏建广,杨洋,蒋汝成,吴金海.洱海水质演变特征及主要影响因子分析[J].中国水利水电科学研究院学报,2022,20(2):112-119,128
洱海水质演变特征及主要影响因子分析
Study on the evolution characteristics of water quality and its key impact factors of Erhai Lake
投稿时间:2020-12-07  修订日期:2021-06-23
DOI:10.13244/j.cnki.jiwhr.20200248
中文关键词:  水质演变特征  环境影响因子  入湖径流  水位调度  面源污染  生态调蓄带  洱海
英文关键词:evolution characteristics of water quality  environmental impact factors  lake inflow  water level regulation  non-point pollutant  ecological storage zones  Erhai Lake
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0505305)
作者单位
马巍 中国水利水电科学研究院 水生态环境所, 北京 100038 
苏建广 云南省水利水电勘测设计研究院, 云南 昆明 650021 
杨洋 云南省水利水电勘测设计研究院, 云南 昆明 650021 
蒋汝成 云南省水利水电勘测设计研究院, 云南 昆明 650021 
吴金海 云南省水利水电勘测设计研究院, 云南 昆明 650021 
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中文摘要:
      洱海是大理白族人民的集中饮用水源地,受自然条件和人类活动加剧影响,近年来洱海水质呈现旱季较好、雨季超标问题突出、年际波动变化明显、水体富营养化程度逐步加重等变化特点。从水质演变的影响因素及其作用机理分析,农业面源是影响洱海水质雨季超标的关键环境因子,降雨径流是面源入湖的主要驱动力和载体,水情条件是驱动洱海水质年际变化的关键因子,水位调度是影响水生植被自然恢复的水力驱动因素,水生植被腐释将对洱海年内5—6月期间水质突变产生重要影响。因此,在外流域水资源补给条件下,强化农业面源源头治理与末端拦截,优化洱海水位调度,提高水生植物的收割管理水平,可加快洱海水生态系统的自然修复并促进洱海水质的可持续性改善。
英文摘要:
      Erhai Lake is the main drinking water source of Bai people in Dali. As a result, the lake is characterized by relatively good water quality in dry season and serious pollution problem during the rainy season, evident interannual fluctuation of water quality, and gradually increasing trend of eutrophication. Among those factors, the agricultural non-point source pollution is the key factor that results in the water quality exceeding the limit during the rainy seasons, rainfall runoff is the main carrier of pollutants into the lake,the hydrological regime is the key driving factor affecting the annual variation of water quality in Erhai Lake,the natural restoration of submerged vegetation in lakeside zone is restricted by the water level of scheduling control, and the decaying aquatic vegetation is an important factor affecting sudden changes of water quality in May and June. Therefore, measures, such as carrying water from other basin to Erhai lake, controlling the agricultural non-point source pollution, strengthening the end interception of pollutants by the ecological storage zones and the scientific level of aquatic plant harvesting management,and optimizing the water level scheduling,are the keys ways to achieve the sustainable improvement of the water quality and water ecosystem of Erhai Lake.
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