李久生,李益农,栗岩峰,赵伟霞,王珍,王军.现代灌溉水肥精量调控原理与应用[J].中国水利水电科学研究院学报,2018,16(5):373-384
现代灌溉水肥精量调控原理与应用
Principle and application of precise regulating water and fertilizers for modernized irrigation technologies
投稿时间:2018-08-21  
DOI:10.13244/j.cnki.jiwhr.2018.05.006
中文关键词:  喷灌  微灌  施肥  变量灌溉  再生水
英文关键词:irrigation  fertigation  precise regulating  variable rate irrigation  sewage effluent
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重大项目(51790531)
作者单位
李久生 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100048 
李益农 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100048 
栗岩峰 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100048 
赵伟霞 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100048 
王珍 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100048 
王军 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100048 
摘要点击次数: 20
全文下载次数: 10
中文摘要:
      过去15年间,中国水利水电科学研究院水利研究所瞄准现代灌溉农业集约化和精量化发展目标,重点围绕不同生态区域、不同尺度农田的水肥施用与多过程综合调控中存在的问题,系统开展了现代灌溉水肥精量调控研究,取得了系列化的成果:考虑土壤空间变异和层状质地对水肥分布的影响,改进了微灌系统的设计方法;在干旱区和半湿润区等不同气候区,选取小麦、玉米、棉花和蔬菜等典型作物,全面考虑水力学参数、土壤水肥动态和淋失、环境参数以及作物产量和品质等因素对微灌均匀系数的响应机制进行研究,提出了微灌均匀系数分区标准;在国内率先开展了变量灌溉理论和控制技术的研究,发展了适用于缺水地区的非充分变量灌溉理论;从系统安全、环境安全和水肥高效利用出发,揭示了再生水滴灌对系统性能和环境的影响机制,定量评价了再生水中养分的有效性;研发了低压高均匀灌水器、多功能系列喷头和智能灌溉施肥机等装置,实现了灌水施肥性能的提升;形成了区域化的喷、微灌水肥高效利用模式。上述成果为进一步提高农田水肥利用率、推动喷、微灌理论和技术进步提供了支撑。
英文摘要:
      During the last 15 years, the Department of Irrigation and Drainage of China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) conducted extensive studies on the precise management and regulation of water and fertilizers to meet the development needs of intensive and precision irrigated agricul-ture. These studies mainly focus on the water and fertilizer management for different scale fields in differ-ent ecological regions as well as regulation across multiple processes. The main findings were highlighted in this paper. The standards of micro irrigation uniformity were studied with respect to many aspects of water and solute dynamics, environmental effects, and crop yield and quality under a wide range of environments from arid to subhumid climates for typical wheat, cotton, maize and vegetable crops. As a result, new tar-get uniformity values have been recommended. The design principles and methods of drip irrigation system were updated, considering the spatial variability of soil properties along vertical and lateral directions. We initiated the studies of variable rate irrigation (VRI) to make this new technology adapt to the water limit-ed environments. Many efforts have been made to improve the performance of low-pressure emitters, land-scape sprinklers and fertilizer injectors. Typical efficient use modes of water and fertilizers were established in different regions to aid the extension of sprinkler and microirrigation technologies. These results have greatly contributed to updating the knowledge on water and fertilizer management and increasing water and fertilizer efficiency of sprinkler and microirrigation.
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭