曹逵,邓刚,铁梦雅,张茵琪,温彦锋,殷旗.美国奥洛维尔水库的工程安全管理问题简析[J].中国水利水电科学研究院学报,2018,16(1):29-36
美国奥洛维尔水库的工程安全管理问题简析
Study on the regulatory reason of spillway erosion accident of Oroville Dam
投稿时间:2017-08-02  
DOI:10.13244/j.cnki.jiwhr.2018.01.005
中文关键词:  水库大坝  事故  安全管理  责任主体  监管
英文关键词:dam  accident  safety management  subject of responsibility  supervision
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0404803);中国水科院基本科研业务费专项(GE0145C062017,GE0145B562017)
作者单位E-mail
曹逵 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038  
邓刚 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038 dgang@iwhr.com 
铁梦雅 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038  
张茵琪 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038  
温彦锋 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038  
殷旗 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038  
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中文摘要:
      2017年2月,美国加利福尼亚州奥洛维尔水库出现了严重的溢洪道冲刷破坏事故,引起国际水利水电工程界强烈关注。本文分别介绍了美国地方政府所属大坝的安全管理基本情况和加利福尼亚州所辖大坝安全管理情况,探讨了奥洛维尔工程安全管理存在的问题,分析了工程应急响应的组织模式。从工程安全管理上看,奥洛维尔水库事故出现事故的原因,核心在于安全管理权责不匹配、责任缺位与越权管理并存;监督检查流于形式、运行维护费用投入不足、风险评估不科学等,也是导致事故出现的管理方面原因。
英文摘要:
      A serious spillway erosion accident occurred in Oroville reservoir in California State of the United States in February 2017, which received significant attentions from international hydraulic engineers. Basic situation of dam safety management in the United States is introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, safety management situation of dams under jurisdiction of California State is investigated. Problems on safety management of Oroville project are explored. Emergency response in Oroville accident is also analyzed. According to the authors' opinion, the main managerial reason of the accident is the mismatching of administrative responsibility and management right. The government of California State did not well perform its management duty. However,the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee of the United States acted beyond its authority by mistake. Besides, there were three other managerial reasons that might responsible for the accident. Firstly, the periodic inspection became a mere formality. Existing damage and defection of spillway was not discovered for a long time. Secondly, maintenance and repair budget for the dam was limited. Thirdly,risk assessment in emergency action was unscientific.
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